The influence of each step on binding in the print

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The influence of each step in the printing of books and periodicals on binding date: Source: Chinese paper

in the packaging and printing industry, binding is the final process of the printing of books and periodicals. Its construction quality and efficiency are not only subject to the organization and cooperation, coordination and management, standardized operation and detection control of this process, but also closely related to other links in the printing process of books and periodicals (such as design, plate making, printing, materials, etc.). Here the author makes a simple classification description of the impact of other links on the bookbinding work. Today, the Chinese paper screenwriter will introduce the relevant contents in detail from the printing of books and periodicals

product design

the overall design of books and periodicals is the basic link of printing, and it is also the expected goal of product appearance after production. Usually, the size, structure, content, layout, materials and other tasks of books and periodicals are completed by publishers, departments, advertising companies or the author himself. These design requirements directly determine the difficulty of binding. Because some designers do not understand the processing nature of each link of book printing or do not consider it well in product design, it brings trouble to plate making, printing, binding and other processes in actual production, and the quality is difficult to guarantee. Common problems are as follows

1. Improper layout element design

for example, in the design, there are too large layout center, pictures and words. The wireframe is too close to the incision, and the decorative patterns and page numbers are bleeding. After books and periodicals are bound into volumes, there are often different sizes of edition openings. The wireframe is skewed, the bleeding line is not aligned, and the effective content is cut. Because the binding allows certain errors in folding and bumping, the binding errors should be taken into account when designing the size of the layout center, pictures, words, wireframes, decorative patterns and page decoration

2. Unreasonable cross page graphic design

some products do not take into account the impact of different printing materials and different printing methods on cross page graphics. For example, a journal has designed a cross page map between the second cover and the second cover, and between the third cover and the third cover. If the cover is printed with 200g/M coated paper and the color insert is printed with 80g/m light coated paper, it is inevitable that there will be printing color difference and affect the effect of drawing connection. If the cover is printed by a sheet fed offset press and the color insert is printed by a commercial rotary offset press, different printing methods will also cause obvious color differences between the two parts of the cross page text. In addition, different binding methods also have different requirements for cross page graphic production. For flat binding products, 3-5mm binding opening shall be reserved, for binding products, 2-3mm back milling amount shall be reserved, and 7-10mm side glue position for cover and book block shall be reserved. Otherwise, the cross page image after the books and periodicals are bound into a volume, especially the cross page image in the center of the book may be incomplete, there may be text missing, and the main content of the graphic center may be milled out and bound. Smaller text paragraphs are designed to span pages, which is likely to cause problems such as incomplete middle text and serialization that affect reading

3. The binding design of books and periodicals does not match the materials used

the quality of books and periodicals should include ensuring the integrity of contents and the scientificity of binding, the integrity of graphics and texts, the exquisite printing and binding, the firm binding, the convenience of reading and the convenience of preservation, which are the goals of book printing. In actual production, hard case hardcover is required when the text is no more than 50 pages or the thickness of the back is less than 4mm, binding is required when the text is less than 30 pages, and horse riding binding is required when the text is more than 64 pages. These design requirements are not reasonable. When the back of the book is very narrow, if you design words on the back of the book. Patterns or color patches and ribbons that are obviously different from the cover and back cover, it is difficult to meet the requirements for the cover. The paper used for the text is too poor or too thick, and it is bound and folded. Sewing and other processing will be difficult

4。 Unreasonable folio design

irregular folio is easy to cause waste of paper and other materials, and often leads to complex matching and folding difficulties. Our factory has processed a 42 Kai (105mmx 175mm) manual binding product. In order to save materials, positive paper is used for printing, and the layout is made up in the form of 8 pages +4 pages +9 pages. Some pages should be rolled and folded, and there are too many scattered pages in the matched book, which is bound to reduce the binding efficiency and increase the scrap rate

process design

book and periodical printing enterprises will first formulate construction plans according to the specific requirements of products and customers after receiving printing live parts. On the basis of ensuring the product quality, shortening the production cycle as far as possible, weighing the cost and improving the economic benefits of the enterprise as far as possible, a reasonable process route is formulated according to the actual situation of the production process and technical equipment of the enterprise, taking into account all aspects of plate making, printing and binding. Whether the production process design is correct and reasonable directly affects the production efficiency and quality of the whole production process, especially the binding process

1. Strengthen the review of customer objectives and requirements, self-made originals and raw materials

the production management department should be a good adviser to customers, promote the rational implementation of product design level, and take measures to make up for the deficiencies of design. We should understand the use requirements and quality objectives of the products, comprehensively understand and carefully check the quality of the originals, originals, original samples and raw materials provided by customers, make a correct judgment on whether they can meet the quality objectives required by customers and meet their use requirements, and solve problems in time if found

binding is the last stage, which has certain characteristics in technology. Therefore, the production process design must first ensure the quality of finished binding products and facilitate binding operations. Such as the review of the design thickness of the back of the cover. The accurate calculation of the back thickness is very important to the appearance of the bound book. The back width can be estimated according to the paper thickness x the number of pages. The calculation will be more accurate after measuring the actual paper thickness. Qualified book printing enterprises can use homogenous paper to simulate the actual production situation and make fake sample books to measure the back size more accurately

2. Comprehensively consider the product characteristics and the equipment of the enterprise

the production management department should base on the product characteristics, format, printing volume and binding method; The binding rules determine the construction model, single and double printing and binding and other specific process routes. For products with large printing volume, rotary machine printing and double binding can be considered; Small format products should consider double or even multiple printing. The external version should pay attention to the size of the finished product. The milling, plate splitting method, rules and other process elements shall be rechecked. The process design should also take full account of the performance of the printing and packaging equipment of the enterprise, the production habits of the operators, and the difficulty of the binding operation, so as to reduce the manual folding, matching, pulling, cutting, pasting and other operations as far as possible, and improve the binding efficiency

3. Take into account the requirements of printing paper thickness and folding times

the folding times of products should meet the corresponding standards (see C Ya/T 28-1999): single sheet paper below 59G/M can be folded at most four times, 60-80g/M can be folded at most three times, and above 81g/M can be folded at most two times. In actual production, due to temporary changes in the use of paper or to improve the efficiency of folding, matching and sewing, it may exceed the specified limits, but it should also be understood that the more times the paper with a certain thickness is folded, the more serious the eight character pleats in the post will be, and the greater the creeping deviation between the pages

4. Arrange loose pages reasonably according to the binding process

different binding methods and models have different requirements for the position of loose pages. When the scattered pages of the sewing product form a post alone, the post is easy to be punctured and the page will fall off, so two pages should be allowed in the process design. The 4-page scattered post rides on the adjacent whole page, and the single page should be pasted after the first post, so that it can be divided after sewing and binding. Too many posts. The coaxiality of the spindle axis and the lifting screw axis is out of tolerance. When the paper is too thin, it is often necessary to use nesting. When the paper is too thick and the number of pages per post is too many, there will be phenomena such as the stitching machine can't tie through, the back of the book will crack when rounding, and obvious steps appear at the front of the finished product. At this time, the component post binding should be designed

the placement of scattered pages of binding products is related to the structural performance of the binding machine. For example, products with small print volume, too thin or thick back, tongue on the cover, and special size are bound flexibly and quickly with disc binding machine. The alignment of book stickers mainly depends on manual and machine vibration, and the external placement of scattered pages is conducive to the scattering of scattered pages in place before milling back. Bulk products adopt binding linkage equipment with a high degree of automation. A single page or two pages are generally pasted after the whole post to facilitate automatic matching, and four pages are generally placed between the whole post to ensure that the book block is neatly pasted on the outside when it is sealed, and the cover will not be folded at the binding opening

for horse riding order products, try to put the scattered pages outside, and make them in the form of 2 Riding 4 riding 8. If there are full page color inserts in front of the horse riding bookbinding, but the text is not full page, and there are scattered pages sandwiched in the middle, then the positioning of scattered pages will be delayed when binding

5. Selection and matching of printing machines

different types of printing machines may print different sizes of stickers. When printing and matching multiple models at the same time, pay attention to the selection and matching of models. For example, if the rotary machine with different drum circumference is printed with the same specification of web paper, the format will be different; The size of the folding products printed by the rotary machine and the folding products printed by the sheet fed printer will also be different. If the length of the outer post is larger than that of the inner post, the shift fork used for positioning during horse riding binding linkage binding is difficult to push the predicted VOCs emission in the car to the right place, so there will be stolen posts. Shrinking phenomenon

plate making and plate making

many details of the implementation of the production process are completed in the process of pre press plate making and plate making, such as the unification of rules for different live parts, the reservation of milling and binding, the specification of process identification, and page spread. Processing of bleeding pictures and texts. The page number of the inner post of the horse binding product climbs. Page numbers and brows of the book. The unity of the layout, etc. As the key process of implementing the production process, plate making and patchwork will affect the binding processing quality whether they are considered comprehensively and whether the construction is detailed

1. Table paper accuracy and binding folding

table paper is a template for manual composition, and its drawing accuracy directly affects the page number after folding. Alignment of layout center, eyebrow line and other elements and splicing accuracy of cross page drawing. The drawing of the jigsaw paper should be correct, the size should be accurate, and the diagonal error should be ≤ 1mm. The stage plate should be drawn on relatively thick paper and stored against moisture. The size should be rechecked before use. In principle, it should be drawn with use and should not be used for a long time

2. Spread text. Bleeding graphics and text processing

when making up cross page graphics and text, pay attention to the up and down alignment, and leave allowance for setting, milling and back of pulp to avoid pressing the graphics and text. Reserved milling opening for making up. The stapling opening shall be the same as the actual binding milling back size. The size of the stapling is consistent to ensure the accuracy of the cross page graphic connection. The milling depth of binding products should be designed at 2 O-3.5mm, considering the limitation of paper size in actual production, the milling depth can be slightly smaller under the condition of ensuring that the paper is milled through. The innermost page of the book post can be glued firmly. Generally, the milling mouth of the book post with three folded hands is set to 1.5-2mm, and the book post with four folded hands is set to 2 O-2.5mm. For products with extremely thick book block, the milling opening should be appropriately enlarged during plate making. The important part of the graphic content of books and periodicals should not be too close to the incision, and should be kept at least more than 3mm. Bleeding pictures and texts should be additionally cut to facilitate cutting

3. Set the heart of the text on horseback. The crawling treatment of page number

the thickness of the paper and the number of folding should be considered when making a large version. The influence of the overlapping relationship between posts on the page number. For horse riding binding products, the page center and page number of the inner post should be moved accordingly. For example, when a product with 16 pages and 3 sheets is printed on 70g/m paper and processed in the unit of the whole sheet, it is generally the second to build a new high-performance plastic factory version center. The page number should be moved outwards by 1mm to the direction of stapling as a whole, and the third edition should be moved outwards by 2mm as a whole. For 8-page sets of 8-page sewing products and similar wd-b books and periodicals rotary offset printing machines, each post is a large set of 2 printing sheets

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